Hostile and Closed Environments, Hazards at Close Quarters

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

A spacecraft is not only a home,
it’s also a machine. NASA understands that the ecosystem inside a vehicle plays
a big role in everyday astronaut life.

Important habitability factors
include temperature, pressure, lighting, noise, and quantity of space. It’s
essential that astronauts are getting the requisite food, sleep and exercise
needed to stay healthy and happy. The space environment introduces challenges
not faced on Earth.

Technology, as often is the case
with out-of-this-world exploration, comes to the rescue! Technology plays a big
role in creating a habitable home in a harsh environment and monitoring some of
the environmental conditions.

Astronauts are also asked to
provide feedback about their living environment, including physical impressions
and sensations so that the evolution of spacecraft can continue addressing the
needs of humans in space.

Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including hostile and closed environments, like
the closed environment of the vehicle itself. To learn more, and find out what
NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of hostile and closed environments with Brian
Crucian, NASA immunologist at the Johnson Space Center.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

What’s Up For September 2018?

Outstanding views Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Mars with the naked eye!

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You’ll have to look quickly after sunset to catch Venus. And through binoculars or a telescope, you’ll see Venus’s phase change dramatically during September – from nearly half phase to a larger thinner crescent!

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Jupiter, Saturn and Mars continue their brilliant appearances this month. Look southwest after sunset.

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Use the summer constellations help you trace the Milky Way.

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Sagittarius: where stars and some brighter clumps appear as steam from the teapot.

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Aquila: where the Eagle’s bright Star Altair, combined with Cygnus’s Deneb, and Lyra’s Vega mark the Summer Triangle. 

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Cassiopeia, the familiar “w”- shaped constellation completes the constellation trail through the Summer Milky Way. Binoculars will reveal double stars, clusters and nebulae. 

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Between September 12th and the 20th, watch the Moon pass from near Venus, above Jupiter, to the left of Saturn and finally above Mars! 

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Both Neptune and brighter Uranus can be spotted with some help from a telescope this month.

Look at about 1:00 a.m. local time or later in the southeastern sky. You can find Mercury just above Earth’s eastern horizon shortly before sunrise. Use the Moon as your guide on September 7 and 8th.

And although there are no major meteor showers in September, cometary dust appears in another late summer sight, the morning Zodiacal light. Try looking for it in the east on moonless mornings very close to sunrise. To learn more about the Zodiacal light, watch “What’s Up” from March 2018.

Watch the full What’s Up for September Video: 

There are so many sights to see in the sky. To stay informed, subscribe to our What’s Up video series on Facebook.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Gravity, Hazard of Alteration

A
human journey to Mars, at first
glance, offers an inexhaustible amount of complexities. To bring a mission to
the Red Planet from fiction to fact, NASA’s Human Research Program has organized some of the hazards
astronauts will encounter on a continual basis into five classifications.

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The variance of gravity fields that
astronauts will encounter on a mission to Mars is the fourth hazard.

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On Mars, astronauts would need to
live and work in three-eighths of Earth’s gravitational pull for up to two
years. Additionally, on the six-month trek between the planets, explorers will
experience total weightlessness. 

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Besides Mars and deep space there
is a third gravity field that must be considered. When astronauts finally
return home they will need to readapt many of the systems in their bodies to
Earth’s gravity.

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To further complicate the problem,
when astronauts transition from one gravity field to another, it’s usually
quite an intense experience. Blasting off from the surface of a planet or a
hurdling descent through an atmosphere is many times the force of gravity.

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Research is being conducted to
ensure that astronauts stay healthy before, during and after their mission.
Specifically researchers study astronauts’
vision, fine motor skills, fluid distribution, exercise protocols and response to
pharmaceuticals.

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Exploration to the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to five
known hazards of spaceflight, including gravity. To learn more, and find out
what NASA’s Human Research Program is doing to protect humans in
space, check out the “Hazards of Human Spaceflight" website.
Or, check out this week’s episode of “Houston
We Have a Podcast
,” in which host Gary Jordan
further dives into the threat of gravity with Peter
Norsk,
Senior Research Director/ Element Scientist at
the Johnson Space Center.

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Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.