Examples of animal camouflage

The art of camouflage is one of the fundamental means of existence in the animal world. Whether you’re the hunter or the hunted, you’re usually obliged to be able to disguise, to confuse the enemy. Feature of natural selection — survival of the not fittest, but better merged with the terrain.

Insects, fish, arthropods and molluscs hone skills of disguise to Shine, but experienced photographers and can catch them in the frame. And not all examples could immediately see on the pictures…

Butterflies are nutcrackers of the family nymphalidae come across different colors — from light grey to a piercing blue. This instance is well camouflaged against the bark of a tree.

Flounder helps to blend in with the pebbles not only the perfect colors, but the flat shape of the body. The creation of the camouflage gone more than one thousand years of evolution, but it was worth it.

Lattely, they are the same latowicki insects of the order phasmatodea, turning your body into a perfect copy of the wood sheet. A fairly common method of disguise, but the impression still produces.

Sandy decapod crab easily go unnoticed, moving along the seabed. It draws attention only when his claw was already pooling around the victim.

Stick insects belong to the same squad as lattely, but instead the shape of the leaf chose to turn into a stick. See the insect in this photo? And it is.

Orchid mantis lives up to its name. Its unique look really looks like an exotic flower, and great cheats other insects.

Thaumoctopus mimicus is a species of octopus that can change color and texture depending on the terrain on which it is located. In addition, it copies the appearance and behavior of the various marine organisms that are absolutely unique in the underwater world.

Tarantula — though not too dangerous to humans, but very large and scary spider. Hone, moreover, the technique of masking to Shine that the surprise attack on an unsuspecting victim.


Found the oldest mushroom in the world

For the role of ancient mushroom in the world claimed by several known organisms — all thanks to the variety of mushrooms. Some of them impress with its size as the penalty prototaxites. Today, however, scientists argue, to what Kingdom of nature is attributed prototaxites.

They could be mushrooms, and algae, or even complex systems containing fungi, algae and plants. Another candidate for the oldest known mushrooms — underground fungus of the genus Tortotubus, the age of the sample is about 440 million years.

The new finding, described in the journal PLoS ONE, is much younger — she is about 115 million years. However, it is the oldest known large plate of fruit bodies of mushrooms. On the underside of his cap were the appendages-of the plate where the spore-bearing elements of the fungus.

Fossilized fruiting body of the fungus found in the northeast of Brazil. We finds a very good safety and unique for the ancient mushroom in the way of fossilization. The most well-known fruiting bodies preserved in amber, as found in 2007, predatory mushroom age about 100 million years.

New mushroom is almost completely preserved. According to scientists, he could get to salt pond, where it was gradually covered by layers of sediments. Gradually the tissues of the fungus has replaced the pyrite crystals formed in the sediments. Over time, the pyrite into another mineral goethite. The length of the stalk of the mushroom — 3.4 cm, cap diameter of 1 inch.

The fungus has received the name Gondwanagaricites magnificus. The genus name is derived from the name of the supercontinent Gondwana and the Greek word agarikon fungus. The specific name magnificus (Latin: “great”) the fungus was given for the excellent preservation of the specimen. The finding may expand the geological range of agarikon mushrooms for 15-20 million years in the past.


The noise of the boats made the fish to ignore the offspring

An international group of scientists found that anthropogenic noise can have a negative impact on parental behavior and increase mortality of fish. Noise pollution can have a negative effect on ecosystems, including mammals, birds, fish and invertebrates.

For example, anthropogenic noise can reduce the time of breeding of great tit (Parus major), and nut black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) to make it less receptive to danger signals. Usually, however, such effects are considered in the short term. According to one hypothesis, prolonged exposure to noise allows animals to adapt. In favor of this assumption says, in particular, experience fromcategory of listoedov (Trachops cirrhosus). Simulations showed that these bats are likely to adapt to hunting in urban environments.

In the new work, experts from Bristol University, University of Colorado at boulder and other institutions have studied the effect of multiple noise pollution spiny chromis (Acanthochromis polyacanthus). These fish are common in the Western Pacific ocean and prefer to inhabit coral reefs at depths from four to 20 metres. The main source of noise in these areas are motor boats. Criteria of adverse changes served three types of parental behavior of males: the protection of offspring from predators; feeding; and provision of mucus, rich in proteins, immunoglobulins and microorganisms. Also, the authors evaluated the survival of juvenile fish.

The experiment was conducted from October to December on the basis of research station, Lizard Island in Australia. In the first stage 38 of the nests of A. polyacanthus were divided into two groups. For 12 days in the area of the habitat in the experimental group using underwater speakers six times per hour reproduced one of the four options 60-second audio recordings of the noise of a motor boat; the control group of fish included nature sounds. Noise exposure is provided from 6 to 18 hours. The behavior of males was recorded within the observations on a daily basis, additionally scientists have measured the body of juveniles at the beginning and the end. Survival was analyzed according to the presence in a nest of live offspring by the end of the study.

The results showed that the impact of motor noise, regardless of exposure time on average doubled the number of defensive actions (curiously, it was not associated with an increase in the number of attacks by predators). Also, compared with males in the control group affected by 25 percentage points less time devoted to feeding young. This percentage is negatively correlated with protective behavior. In terms of noise pollution, the offspring of fish approximately three times less likely to consume the slime. By the end of the six nests from the experimental group completely empty, while the sounds of nature was not reflected in the populations. Body size of surviving juveniles was not different.

According to the authors, contrary to the sensitization hypothesis, the experiment did not identify evidence of adaptation of A. polyacanthus to noise pollution. The work for the first time allowed to estimate the influence of anthropogenic noise on the survival of wild animals.