The mystery of the fiery hair of the Sun


The mystery of the fiery hair of the Sun

NASA astronomers watched the birth of hundreds of millions of spicules, a kind of “flaming hair” of the Sun, through which its matter is transformed into the solar wind, and found, as they arise. Their findings are published in the journal Science. “As a rule, magnetic lines are closely associated with charged particles. If the interior of the Sun and in our models were present only such particles, then magnetic fields are “stuck” and could not go beyond the surface of the disc. When we added in the model, a neutral particle, the magnetic fields jiggle,” says Juan Martinez-Sykora (Juan Martinez-Sykora) from the Laboratory of astrophysics of solar companies Lockheed-Martin in Palo Alto (United States). As explained by astronomers, the Sun appears to observers on Earth shining smooth and quiet drive, but in fact it is not – its surface is virtually constantly “boiling” and continually on the move. On the surface of the Sun every day there are large outbreaks, which lead to the “ejection” of hundreds of millions of tons of red-hot matter in outer space. These outbursts, called coronal mass ejections, are not the main source of solar emissions. The lion’s share falls on the solar wind and the so-called spicules – small protuberances at the surface of the Sun, in which matter is dispersed lights and leaves. Due to the existence of the spicules, the surface of the Sun, if you look at it up close, resembles a moving shock of fiery hair, and not “bald” and still glowing ball. Martinez-Sykora and his colleagues figured out why there are such “hair” of the Sun. To do this, she analyzed data collected by the probe IRIS launched in summer 2013 to monitor the birth of the outbreaks on the surface and processes in the chromosphere, the outer shell of the star. Every second in the chromosphere, as scientists tell us, are born and disappear tens of millions of spicules. Their emissions reach a height of tens of thousands of miles in 5-10 minutes — a moment in the cosmic sense, and then either fall back, or fly away into space. Based on data obtained during observations of the “hair” of the Sun, scientists have created a computer model of subsurface light. She helped them figure out how the matter of the spicules is heated almost instantaneously to millions of degrees Kelvin when leaving the surface of the disc, and to understand how their birth involved the magnetic field. It turned out that in the surface layers of the luminary contains a lot of neutral atoms. They radically change the behavior of magnetic field lines in the upper chromosphere produced by “boiling” the matter of the Sun into the deeper layers of the subsoil. Neutral atoms, as the scientists explain, not “cling” magnetic field lines and facilitate their movement, allowing the lines to emerge on the Sun’s surface and to entrain charged particles, expelling them in the atmosphere of a star and into space like a slingshot or catapult. This process heats the ejected plasma and generates a special magnetic waves, which are associated with the existence of the solar wind. The opening mechanism of the birth of the “flaming hair” of the Sun, as scientists hope, will help better predict “Sunny weather” and will allow astronomers and physicists closer to understanding where other types of flares on its surface. Source

The secret of popularity of battle of the psychics


The secret of popularity of battle of the psychics

Live TNT replay of the 17 th season of “Battle of psychics” — the most popular mystical and ambitious project of the country. Presenter Marat Basharov has solved some of the mysteries of the season, and also said what, in his opinion, the secret of the popularity of “Battle of psychics” and that the actor and TV host thinks about people with superpowers and their predictions. — Why in 2009, has agreed to be the host of the show “Battle of psychics”? — This is a very interesting project, and for me as an ordinary person, it was very interesting to chat live with real psychics. And even more so to be leading this show is a great honor for me. I agreed without hesitation to such an experiment, as soon as received an offer. And I can say that I have not regretted. — You have nearly seven years of conducting this project. Why are you interested? — For 7 years? Wow, how quickly time flies. Like yesterday only came to the first program. Interesting, because you have to communicate with people who are not like others, who feel differently, see a bit more than we ordinary mortals. Communication with such people it will be interesting to any person. — Is there some case or some hero of the “Battle”, which over the years has impressed you the most? — Of course. All those who participated in the show. Because even those who dropped out early or were two steps away from winning, unique individuals with interesting abilities, their visions and ideas. Each season of miracles happen, and I am always interested to experience. Most of all I like tests, I’ll perform in the first editions of the show right in the Gothic hall. About these tests, nobody knows, just me and therefore draining the impossible for psychics. I can personally test the abilities of each. This is the most favorite moment in the program. For nine years it has been 16 seasons. What’s the secret of the popularity of the viewer? — If a day to me does not approach 10 people and ask: “Tell me, in the “Battle of psychics” all true?” the day passed in vain. Many people ask such a stupid question, that’s probably why the show is so popular: people look and try to understand the truth of what is happening in the “Battle of psychics” or not. Because people are generally inclined to believe in miracles. And the Russian people, even to the same and do not like to work and want someone behind them all somehow miraculously made, such as a pike or a goldfish in fairy tales. In our case, it’s some kind of wizard or magician: make the business better cure for all illnesses, or predict the future. So people watching, hoping that their problems will be able to solve the mages. — How do you feel about the criticism directed to the address of the program? — I critics never read. But if you criticize, then look, then there is interest. Criticism is always appropriate if it is justified. We are not perfect, and in the “Battle of psychics” has its flaws. May be leading a bad example. So let them stare and criticize. — Do you believe in predictions of you who give the winners of the show? And how often do you predict? — I to psychics for help do not apply. They feel it, see and try not to predict. And even if you predict, I just thank them, but do not dwell on their words. But this does not mean that I do not believe. I believe it and predictions. — Have you changed your attitude about people with supernatural abilities? — I have great respect and continue applies to people with superpowers, because, actually, it is very difficult to live. You imagine that you always have to communicate with dead souls? They you dream, see, hear, climb to you with their problems, wishes. This is hard and scary. I would not want to have such a sixth sense. — Do you support communication with any of the characters show? — Yes, we are friends with some psychics. Natalia Panteeva, with Alexander Sheps, Marilyn Kerro, Lena Yasevich. They come to me for the performances. — In your opinion, is psychic — that is a huge responsibility to the people? Is it possible to develop clairvoyant or a gift? — Of course, this is a gift that we need to develop a beautiful voice for example. Or as the gift of dance, art, or acting. Clairvoyance is a responsibility, because with these abilities a person and do harm. With the information which you have psychics, you have to be very careful, it is priceless. After all, we all struggle to learn something that others do not know. This is a very powerful weapon and with any weapon you have to be careful. — Do you believe in omens? Do you have any lucky charms? I believe in omens. I’m generally a superstitious person. When the road enters the black cat, spit over your shoulder and a button hold. Before going on stage, too, use my outfit from superstition and the evil eye. But my main mascot is my faith. I always live with faith in God and never forget God, always turn to him for help. And thank him that he is always with me in my heart. — Not so long ago you the second time became a father. You predicted it? — Yes, my son — a stunning and magical. For any man the birth of a son, an heir is a very exciting, and I’m very happy and grateful to his wife for such a gift. No one predicted that a son, but we really wanted it and worked on it. And who in the spring worked well in the field, he will get his share! (laughs) — You are very risky person? If Yes, in what ways? — Yes, I am risky person. After login to psychics with two envelopes, with good and bad news is in the cage with the tigers to enter! And still have the audacity and strength to them every week to drive. This is a serious risk. Source

The most ancient online. As the mushrooms pass information


The most ancient online. As the mushrooms pass information

Mushrooms older than the first humans about a billion years. They appeared on this planet even before the first vertebrates. Now scientists believe that fungi evolved from primitive single-celled colorless flagellate organisms living in the water. It is difficult to understand: who were these ancestors of fungi, plants or animals… just as it is difficult to include mushrooms to some of these biological kingdoms. In the early twentieth century, the mushroom was attributed to the lower plant, and now consider them an intermediate form that is still closer to animals. That brings mushrooms to animals? They look like small trees, so as not to move, but internally, as it proved to be closer to us. This set of characteristics: a biochemical, phylogenetic, fungi cell walls contains chitin, like insects, they have formed urea, which happens only in animals. In addition, for breeding mushrooms have one smooth flagellum, similar to human sperm. Now, when it became possible to look into the genome, the scientists closer moved the mushrooms to the side of the animal. A billion years ago, when the Earth’s surface crawled only small worms and ran wingless insects and millipedes, mushrooms have already created their own “Internet” — a device for the transfer of biological information. For this, they spread across the planet the network of hyphae is the filamentous outgrowths, which are necessary for the absorption of water and nutrients. Naturally, many plants are “outraged” because the mushrooms were taken from their place under the Sun! But then the mushrooms offered a new form of cooperation: symbiosis that is easy “cases for the roots” mycorrhiza, with which other plants got the advantage — they not only were protected from drying out, but could be pumped through a network of tubes need nutrients. Of course, these arguments are metaphorical plants, as mushrooms do not know how to reason and draw conclusions about their benefits. But the evolution of the run-in option which satisfied all coexisting species. Was in the ancient history of mushrooms and their achievements: for example, mushroom giant, attained the height of 8 meters and a half! Scientists call them prototaxites (lat.Prototaxites). Not true, if you imagine the world of the Devonian (the Devonian period – 419-358 million years ago), and a huge eight-meter mushrooms that tower over lush green forests (tall, by the way, not more than a meter) and below them a well-developed system of “mushroom of the Internet”, they more closely resemble the tower?! Fossils of prototaxites haunted paleontologists. The first giant of education, has found and described a canadian geologist by the American scientist John William Dawson (J. W. Dawson), and it was in 1857-the year. He thought it was a sample of fossilized rotten yew (Taxus), and therefore gave them the name Prototaxites. Then the scientists decided that it’s a huge seaweed, but haunted ring was found on the cut trunk. Could it be the rings? And doubts again, in no way they resemble the rings of a tree, rather it is a tube that goes inside… And only recently, Francis Heuber (Francis Hueber) of the U.S. national Museum of natural history (Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History), analyzing sections of the multiple instances of prototaxites from different countries, proved that it is a fungus. However, he can still be a lichen (a mixture of fungus and algae). You can imagine how long mushrooms “bothered” by the problem of the formation of a private communication system. Recent experiments with tomatoes have shown that fungi transmit “information” rather quickly. Chinese scientists conducted an experiment on tomatoes, the United “mushroom network” and the control group of plants, where they grow was not given. The researchers were infected with fungus one of the plants, then, after 65 hours, infecting more and looked at his resistance to the disease. It turned out that in the presence of a fungal connection, the second plant was less susceptible to disease and if still sick, endured it better than tomatoes lone. It turns out the information is really transmitted? Depends on what is considered information. Says Alexander Kurakov, head of the Department of Mycology and Algology of the Biological faculty of MSU named after M. V. Lomonosov: “Indeed, plants are very connected among themselves via mycorrhizae, for example, in the forest biocenosis: orchids and glushankova, and woody and herbaceous… They can share nutrients and exchange water, something to signal. This they can do. But this is all that “information” about which we can say in this case. I would say that the mycorrhiza — new opportunities. As the person sits in the car, and can move quickly, that is, it acquires new features. A plant with mycorrhizae acquires, for example, resistance to drought. But, no more.” Source