Immunological Heat Certain cancers, particularly those in the…

Immunological Heat

Certain cancers, particularly those in the brain, are known for being immunologically speaking, ‘cold’. That is, they’re largely devoid of immune cells because the tumours create an immune-suppressing environment to avoid being detected and destroyed. Boosting a patient’s immune system may help, but could lead to complications such as fevers, rashes, loss of appetite, muscle pain and more. Researchers are therefore investigating ways to increase the immunological heat specifically at the tumour. One approach is to inject tumours with an immune-stimulating gene that’s only switched on when a patient swallows a pill. This drug-controlled gene therapy ensures immune activity is maximised at the tumour, minimised elsewhere and can be easily stopped if unpleasant symptoms arise. Such therapy has been trialled in patients with brain cancer where it turned cold tumours (like the one on the left) into relative furnaces, packing them with fiery immune cells (highlighted in multiple colours, right).

Written by Ruth Williams

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HiPOD 4 September 2019: The Bedrock Riddles of Nili Fossae …

HiPOD 4 September 2019: The Bedrock Riddles of Nili Fossae

   This image of the Nili Fossae region, to the west of the great Isidis basin, shows layered bedrock with many impact craters. Nili Fossae is one of the most mineralogically important sites on Mars. Remote observations by the infrared spectrometer onboard MRO (called CRISM) suggest the layers in the ancient craters contain clays, carbonates, and iron oxides, perhaps due to hydrothermal alteration of the crust. However, the impact craters have been degraded by many millions of years of erosion so the original sedimentary, impact ejecta, or lava flows are hard to distinguish.

The bright linear features are sand dunes, also known as “transverse aeolian dunes,” because the wind direction is at ninety degrees to their elongated orientation. This shows that the erosion of Nili Fossae continues to the present day with sand-sized particles broken off from the local rocks mobilized within the dunes.

NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Earliest spread of millet agriculture outside China linked to herding livestock

Five thousand years before the modern rise of millet as a popular grain, this Chinese crop was spread far and wide by ancient food aficionados, not for their plates but instead for their animals, suggests new research from an international collaboration led by Kiel University (Germany) and Washington University in St. Louis.

Earliest spread of millet agriculture outside China linked to herding livestock
A herder leads his sheep and goats across a field in the Dzhungar Mountains of Kazakhstan. New research from
Washington University in St. Louis and Kiel University in Germany reveals that sheep and goats domesticated
in the Near East had reached eastern Kazakhstan by 2700 BC. High-resolution stable isotope analysis shows
these animals were winter foddered with the earliest millets spreading out of China
[Credit: Paula Dupuy]

At settlement of Dali, ancient DNA from the skeletal remains of sheep and goats shows that animals first domesticated in the Near East had reached eastern Kazakhstan by 2700 B.C. Stable isotope analysis illustrates that these animals were fed millet spreading westward from its center of domestication in China to help them survive the punishingly cold winters of Inner Asia.

The study draws upon field work and museum collections as part of a longstanding scientific partnership between Washington University, led by Michael Frachetti, professor of archaeology in Arts & Sciences, and the Institute of Archaeology in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

The mountainous site of Dali is located near the crossroads of cultural and genetic change during the Early and Late Bronze Age in a region that Frachetti calls the Inner Asia Mountain Corridor.

“The most important finding for me is the presence of a well-developed pastoralist economy using Chinese millets at 2700 B.C.,” said Taylor Hermes of Kiel University, co-lead author of a new study in Proceedings of the Royal Society B and a 2007 graduate of Washington University. “This is quite an early date for the domesticated animals to be present in the region, and it is also the earliest dated evidence that millets had spread out of China. This suggests that it took domesticated sheep and goats from the Near East to have spread all the way to China before millets began spreading widely.”

The spread of domesticated plants and animals through the vast steppe grasslands of Inner Asia nearly 5,000 years ago marked the beginning of the ancient trade routes, later known as Asia’s Silk Roads. However, the exact timing and circumstances of moving crops through this continental crossroads and the case for actual farming, have remained elusive.

“Our previous research showed archaeobotanical remains of both wheat and millet around 2300 B.C.E. in the highlands of Kazakhstan, but there was little concrete evidence to show whether these were trade items or farmed locally,” Frachetti said. He is a co-author and co-director of the underlying archaeological fieldwork.

“We were left to speculate about the integration of intensive farming among Early Bronze Age herders in the region, and if these grains made it into their diet,” he said.

Evidence of cereal consumption can be traced using isotopes found in human bones, but human skeletal remains dating to the third millennium BC are rare.

As a result, reconstructing the seasonal diets reflected in more abundant animal bones is a key approach to assess agricultural production and the scale of local production, the researchers said.

“The evidence we found of people foddering sheep, goats and cattle with millet at various intensities suggests a huge degree of flexibility in food production,” Hermes said. “It may very well be the case that people who lived at Dali and Begash shifted their herding and farming strategies year-to-year depending on environment or social circumstances.

“For now, we can only tell that people were cultivating millet to support their animals’ welfare in the harsh winters of central Asia.”

This study clearly links the westward dispersal of millets — a key indigenous crop of Chinese civilization — to livestock herding by nomadic pastoralists who used farming to enhance their animal-focused worlds.

Author: Talia Ogliore | Source: Washington University in St. Louis [September 04, 2019]