Before and After Although most of your brain cells were formed…

Before and After

Although most of your brain cells were formed in the womb before you were born, a significant proportion is made after birth. But are there any differences between the nerve cells (neurons) laid down before birth and the ones that come along later? To find out, researchers have made these detailed maps of dopaminergic neurons located in the mouse olfactory bulb – the part of the brain that deals with smelling – which are produced both before (bottom) and after (top) birth. The foetal nerve cells have long ‘trunks’ known as axons, marked with pink squares, and tend to have more ‘branches’ than neurons produced once the animal is born. They also function in slightly different ways. Understanding these differences reveals a richer picture of how the brain works, and helps guide research investigating how new nerve cells could be made to replace those lost in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

Written by Kat Arney

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‘Viking Age destruction’ found to have preserved key parts of Scotland’s largest Pictish fort

When one of Scotland’s most powerful Pictish forts was destroyed by fire in the 10th century – a time when Vikings are known to have been raiding the Moray coastline – it brought to a rapid end a way of life which had endured for centuries.

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
The University of Aberdeen archaeological dig at Burghead Fort which uncovered a Pictish longhouse
and coins dating back more than 1000 years [Credit: PA]

But archaeologists from the University of Aberdeen have now discovered that while the tenth-century fire razing of the fort, which is often attributed to advancing Vikings, may have spelled the end for Pictish life on the promontory, it has preserved material from the site that would normally have rotted away hundreds of years ago – offering them a unique insight into its history.

The team, led by Dr Gordon Noble head of archaeology at the University, returned to Burghead near Lossiemouth, in April to continue excavations at the fort – the largest of its kind in Scotland.

Although Burghead’s significance as a seat of Pictish power is well known, little archaeological work has been undertaken there as it was believed all significant evidence of its earlier life was destroyed when the building of the modern town commenced in 1805.

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
The fort, near Burghhead on the Moray coast, was largely destroyed by a fire during a Viking invasion
in the 10th century [Credit: University of Aberdeen]

The Aberdeen team began excavations in 2015 and their efforts have already yielded significant finds including a Pictish longhouse and Anglo Saxon coins of Alfred the Great. This time they were granted scheduled monument consent to dig in the lower citadel for the first time and at the seaward ramparts of the upper citadel.

In the lower citadel their excavations uncovered a huge timber laced wall which would have stood more than six metres high and in the upper citadel remarkably preserved timbers. The complexity of the fort defences was documented in the 19th century work of archaeologist Hugh Young but Dr Noble said his team had expected little trace to remain. Instead they found the defensive structure preserved in amazing detail.

Dr Noble explains: “We are fortunate to have the descriptions of the site written by Hugh Young in 1893. He describes a lattice work of oak timbers which would have acted as an enormous defensive barrier and must have been a hugely complex feat of engineering in the early medieval period.

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
In situ charred planks in the wall face [Credit: University of Aberdeen]

“In the years that have passed since he made his observations, the Burghead Fort has unfortunately been subject to significant coastal erosion and the harsh North Sea environment.

“But when we started digging, we discovered that while the destruction of the fort in the 10th century may not have been good news for the Picts, the fact that so much of it was set alight is a real bonus for archaeologists.

“We have discovered that the complex layer of oak planks set in the wall was burned in situ and that the resulting charring has actually preserved it in amazing detail when ordinarily it would have rotten away to nothing by now.”

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
A pin decorated with a bramble is among items discovered at the Pictish fort [Credit: University of Aberdeen]

The level of preservation has allowed the archaeologists to take multiple samples for carbon dating which should provide new insights into the period when the fort was built, its construction and final destruction.

“The Picts were a huge influence on northern Scotland but because they left no written records, archaeology is essential in providing answers in regard to their lives, influence and culture,” Dr Noble added.

“While it has long been known that Burghead was a very significant place, it was also assumed that its archaeological value had been largely lost due to the destruction caused by the building of the modern town.

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
A mace headed pin was found in the Picts’ midden [Credit: University of Aberdeen]

“Our work so far has shown that this is certainly not the case. Instead we are starting to build a picture of Pictish resources being out into this site on a scale we have never found evidence for before.”

In addition to the fortified wall, archaeologists also found intricate hair and dress pins, one with a detailed bramble design and identified ‘midden layers’ which they expect to yield significant archaeological value in assessing the economy and everyday lives of the fort dwellers.

“We are digging in what is essentially the area that the Picts threw their rubbish but this collection of the waste products of their day-to-day lives is a treasure trove to archaeologists.

'Viking Age destruction' found to have preserved key parts of Scotland's largest Pictish fort
Cathy MacIver of AOC Archaeology with a bronze ring from the excavations
[Credit: University of Aberdeen]

“What’s exciting is the level of preservation here. We’ve found animal bone which rarely survives in mainland Scotland because of the acidic soil. We are already getting really nice information about what people ate within the fort and we hope to extract a level of information we’ve not had for Pictish sites before.”

But Dr Noble says that time is pressing to take full advantage of Burghead before its secrets are lost to the sea.

“Coastal erosion is getting to be a real issue at the site and over the last century metres of coastline have disappeared,” he added. “The timber wall we found is only one to one and a half metres away from the erosion face.

“We hope to return next year to rescue as much as we can before it falls into the sea.”

Source: University of Aberdeen [May 30, 2018]

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14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists

A group of University of Otago archaeologists have uncovered the peripheries of a 14th century Māori village in Gisborne.

14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists
The excavation site at Eastland Port — just past The Works carpark — is where remains were found from the outskirts of a
Maori village dating back to the 14th century. The deepest part, about 2.5 metres underground, was where the oldest
artefacts were found. Professor Richard Walter said they excavated an area of several hundred square metres to find
remnants from the old Maori village and then further excavated the area under cover [Credit: Cinema East]

The University’s Southern Pacific Archaeological Research (SPAR) unit has recently completed it’s third visit to Eastland Port in Gisborne. Heritage New Zealand granted archaeological consent to the Port in 2016, as part of an ongoing redevelopment project.

Among the findings in the 2.5 metre-deep excavation were moa bones and other food items, fish hooks manufactured of moa bone and stone tools made of obsidian and chert. The site was located on the edge of an old riverbed. The obsidian (volcanic glass) was used by early Māori settlers as simple cutting tools. The materials found are estimated to date back to the early 1300s.

14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists
Bone and artefacts from the site. The bone is food remains and includes a piece of moa bone at the bottom left.
The top left is part of a dog jaw [Credit: Cinema East]

University of Otago Professor of Archaeology Richard Walter says uncovering the site is significant from a scientific and cultural perspective.

“We don’t know as much about the early occupation around this part of the coastline as we do in other parts of the country,” says Professor Walter. “There are not too many of these very, early sites and so this one is filling the gaps.”

14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists
An obsidian flake tool was also found [Credit: Cinema East]

The area has a significant history as the first landing place of waka (canoes) which carried Maori to the district; and the first contact between Māori and explorer James Cook taking place on the river in 1769. Plans are underway to commemorate the 250th anniversary next year.

Professor Walter says given the amount of material found at the site, the chances of finding a village within the vicinity are quite high.

14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists
A dog jaw bone found at the site [Credit: Cinema East]

The site was identified through Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga’s archaeological consent process, which regulates the modification or destruction of archaeological sites.

“This really is a great example of the archaeological consent process working well where all the groups involved have been working together to get the best possible outcome for this very important place,” says Heritage New Zealand Pouhere Taonga’s Director Regional Services Pam Bain.

14th century Maori village discovered by Otago archaeologists
Shells found in a midden are sieved [Credit: Cinema East]

Eastland Port received consent from Gisborne District Council in 2017 to develop the wharfside log yard. The site is now being re-covered with the knowledge that any ongoing redevelopments within the port will not affect the historic site.

The artefacts and faunal remains are being analysed by the SPAR team in the Otago Archaeology Laboratories in the University’s Richardson Building, before the process begins to return them to their rightful owners.

A report is expected to be published on the findings at a later date.

Source: University of Otago [May 30, 2018]

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