Meets the famous anthropologist, science popularizer, science editor of the portal Anthropogeny.Roux, PhD, associate Professor in the Department of anthropology of the biological faculty of Moscow state University. Lomonosov Stanislav Drobyshevsky.
– Just look at the chicken and all becomes clear. There are kangaroos, jerboas, extinct dinosaurs, kangaroo rats and many other animals, which cannot be called reasonable, because dunagolf has nothing to do with intelligence. Another thing is that dunagolf makes it possible to free the front limbs. For the development of intelligence is not that necessary, but can stimulate its formation. We have the sense of touch and other feelings that are transmitted to the brain, thus developing it. In addition, it is very important that the free limbs can make tools.
Here a pertinent question: can the mind without work? The fact that we know the rationality is only one version — our. And what kinds can exist even, we are simply unknown. The reasonableness while he appeared only to those who used the tools. Moreover, the more that someone uses a work activity, so it is wiser. If an elephant has a trunk, which he might have something to do, of course, expect that he’s smarter than, for example, the rhinoceros, which has no such authority. The same in relation to our closest relatives — chimpanzees, which also may have something to do with his hands, but the antelopes, for example, can’t. Although the sizes of these pairs of animals more or less comparable, the level of intelligence they are different.
Dolphins can do something with your mouth, like new Caledonian crows beak. But with the help of mouth a lot of tools will not do, therefore, their intelligence comes to a standstill and does not develop further. Mind needs to be certain prerequisites must match the variety of circumstances: the food, the environment, the combination of predators and competitors, communication with representatives of its own kind, etc. And denagoth is just another of these conditions, which frees the forelimbs for employment. The number of legs here, by the way, doesn’t matter.
If the mind has arisen on the basis of, for example, insects, which have six limbs, they could be quite a four-legged, and front paws to make tools. The same thing would happen if, say, vertebrates came on to land, not being four-legged and six-legged.
In addition, there’s a difference between what dunagate we say, because dunagolf person and denagoth birds is not the same thing. All bipeds, except for us, the spine is actually horizontal (vertical may be is that the neck, but the back still remains horizontal). Look at the chicken or on the same dinosaur (in a modern reconstruction) — they have no bipedalism. The concept Donohoe and walking upright — is not synonymous. After all, in order to drag from place to place those tools, it would be nice to be vertical, not sloped, otherwise, it’s simply the odds and the animal will fall forward.
If we talk about another important factor — a diet, then theoretically, the mind can develop on any diet. But it is theoretically. In practice, we see that he has evolved and developed at a time when we were truly omnivorous. While the Australopithecus ate mostly plant foods only, could not be of speech, and of one mind. Omnivorous is important because it forces you to strain your brain. After all, if the creature is omnivorous, it eats fruit today, tomorrow, the insects, the day after tomorrow — antelopes. And he needs to join a different program behavior on different occasions. If the animal eats one thing, he had only one program is usually congenital (to work universal). Take the aardvark, which does is to smash termite mounds to get the ants, or colobus, which feeds almost exclusively on leaves, and nothing else in his life is not necessary, or a lion that catches an antelope, and besides hunting for such animals no other skills, he’s not interested. In this case, there is no incentive for the development of the brain — all is already defined and programmed. A omnivorous creature constantly need to invent something to get different types of food.
This became especially urgent when our ancestors became omnivorous in Savannah, because there is, on the one hand, eating a lot, and with another — it is distributed over a vast territory. Have to constantly go to different places, getting one thing after another. The need to do it and was one of the main stimuli for the emergence of rationality.
Sociability, that is, of sociality, is also an important factor. The more social the animal, the more brains and more complex behavior, because communication involves many non-standard situations, and thus a reason to develop intelligence.
Rationality is generally associated with atypical situations. There are numerous definitions of this term, but what I like the most: intelligence is the ability outside the box to respond to unusual stimuli, that is, each time issuing a new reaction type, to absorb a huge amount of diverse information and find connections between seemingly unrelated things. Even if we are talking about standard situations the mind sometimes gives her a non-standard response. In the case of rationality are no innate behavior programs, on the contrary, programmes purchased, but still the same re-programmed throughout life.