NASA’S SECCHI STEREO images of “UFO” around the sun and in space are Hoax

ufo hoax around the sun, STEREO program is Space Weather predictions
Hoaxer says “Our Sun is casting the Light that is coming in from the left side of the frame. This satellite’s archives showed the Sun began reacting to this object on November 15th and there are several frames missing on the 15th and 16th”

Initially, it is mystification, it stretches as different hoaxers, here are some of them:

ufomania or mister enigma hoax YT channel UFOmania – The truth is out there

Russian hoaxer alias myunhauzen74 YT link

All hoaxers purchase the paid pages on this site www.disclose.tv

Other sites and social pages distributing hoaxs to attract viewers for free.

Media distributing hoaxers for discrediting tactic of Ufology as Science itself.

Both derive their income and profits, by providing false information to people who are watching.

What mistaken for UFOs, are only defects artefacts of the image-triggered technical features or conventional light patches on the satellite sensor lens.

Source of all image NASA link

Do not believe the people trying to defame the name and work of the very smart and talented technicians and scientists from NASA.

Conventional Internet trolls do not have the mind to understand.

NASA Explanation

IMAGE ARTIFACTS

Not everything visible in STEREO images is related to the Sun or the solar atmosphere. Some features are caused by the telescope optics, the cameras used to capture the images, or how the STEREO spacecraft are operated. These features can be quite confusing, and require some explanation. Below we outline some of the common non-solar features which appear in the images.

Light reflecting inside the telescope optics, and diffracting off edges within the telescopes, can produce some interesting effects. Consider this series of images showing the planet Venus leaving the field of view of the HI1-B telescope between Janary 26-31, 2009. As Venus approaches the edge of the field-of-view, a ring shape is seen apparently coming out of the planet. This is caused by reflections of the bright planet off of the camera barrel. (If you look closely at the full-field version of the January 26, 2009 image above, you’ll see a large, faint bubble on the left side of the image, which is also an internal reflection of Venus.) The ring grows progressively larger as time goes by. On January 31, a horizontal streak appears near the position where Venus disappeared. This latter effect is caused by diffraction off of the optical baffles. Click here for a more detailed explanation.

The planets Mercury (left) and Venus (right) as seen in the HI1-B telescope on January 26, 2009. Click on the images to see full-sized versions.
Venus leaving field-of-view January 27, 2009. Ring caused by reflection off of camera surfaces.
Venus leaving field-of-view January 27, 2009. Ring caused by reflection off of camera surfaces.
sun ufo artefacts
Venus out of field-of-view, but still reflecting off camera surfaces, January 28, 2009.
Diffraction of Venus off baffle edges, January 31, 2009
Diffraction of Venus off baffle edges, January 31, 2009
Internal reflections of the planet Earth, as seen in the HI2-B telescope on May 5, 2007. Also visible are the Moon, and the planet Mars. Click on the image to see the full-sized version.
Internal reflections of the planet Earth, as seen in the HI2-B telescope on May 5, 2007. Also visible are the Moon, and the planet Mars. Click on the image to see the full-sized version.

Here’s an image from the HI2-B telescope which shows a number of interesting internal reflections. The brightest object in the field is our own planet Earth, which is responsible for all the reflection effects. Also visible is the Moon, and the planet Mars. A similar event is described on this page.

 

Below is another example of internal reflections in the STEREO telescopes, this time from the COR2 telescope, taken when the extremely bright planet Venus was passing through the field of view. Circled is a faint reflection of the planet. Clicking on the image will bring up a movie showing the reflection entering the field from the right, and then slowly fading away.

Internal reflection of the planet Venus, as seen in the COR2-A telescope on May 2, 2010. Click  to see a movie of the reflection (3 MB).

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – DEBRIS

Occasionally one will see bright blobs or streaks appearing in the STEREO coronagraph images. These have been seen before by the SOHO mission, and are caused by micrometeorite impacts knocking off small pieces of the multi-layer insulation blankets which are wrapped around the spacecraft. These small debris particles are brightly illuminated by the Sun, and are easily seen by the coronagraphs if they wander into the field of view. They are tremendously out-of-focus, and often appear as “donut” shapes in the COR1 and COR2 telescopes because of the central occulter in these telescopes. The bigger the piece of debris appears, the closer it is to the telescope. Because the COR1 and COR2 images are generally built up from a series of images, the same piece of debris will often show up multiple times.

Debris event observed by the STEREO Ahead COR1 telescope on December 23, 2008
Debris event observed by the STEREO Ahead COR1 telescope on December 23, 2008
Same event as seen in COR2
Same event as seen in COR2
Same event as seen in HI1
Same event as seen in HI1
Same event as seen in HI2
Same event as seen in HI2

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – STARS, PLANETS, AND COMETS

Stars are always present in the STEREO COR2, HI1, and HI2 images, and can sometimes be seen in COR1. Stars drift slowly from left-to-right with time, caused by the spacecraft orbiting around the Sun. Twice a year the Milky Way will drift through the field-of-view, as in this example from the HI1 on STEREO Ahead.

Milky Way as seen by STEREO Ahead HI1
The Milky Way passing through the field-of-view of the STEREO Ahead HI1 telescope on October 12, 2009. Click on any image for a higher resolution version.

Often, planets can also be seen passing through the telescope fields-of-view. The STEREO Planet Finder page shows what planets are currently visible in the STEREO telescopes, while the STEREO Orbit Tool shows the positions of the planets in the solar system for any given date during the mission. Most planets are too bright for the sensitive optics in the STEREO coronagraphs, causing them to appear overly large and distorted. Note the “butterfly” shape of Venus in the COR2 image below, caused by diffraction off the occulter stem. In the HI1 and HI2 images, planet images and particularly bright stars will also be accompanied by vertical streaks (either white or black), which is due to the shutterless readout of the cameras on these telescopes. Most planets will move from left to right, but the inner planets Mercury and Venus often are seen moving from right to left.

 

Venus and Mercury as seen by STEREO Behind COR2  

 

 

 

Jupiter as seen by STEREO Ahead HI1
The planets Venus (left) and Mercury (right) as seen by the STEREO Behind COR2 telescope on October 13, 2009 Jupiter as seen by the STEREO Ahead HI1 telescope on September 1, 2008

 

Occasionally, even bright comets can cause vertical streaks in the data. Here is an image of Comet McNaught as it appears in HI1-B on the SSC website. Note the large dark vertical dark streak, and the smeared brightness toward the bottom of the image, both effects caused by the high brightness of this particular comet. Advanced techniques exist for removing some of these effects from the images, but these are not applied routinely on the SSC website. Better images of Comet McNaught are available on the STEREO Gallery. Additional information about comets seen by STEREO can be found on the Sungrazer website.

Comet McNaught as seen by STEREO Behind COR2
Comet McNaught as seen by the STEREO Behind COR2 telescope on January 12, 2007

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – STARS, PLANETS, AND COMETS

Stars are always present in the STEREO COR2, HI1, and HI2 images, and can sometimes be seen in COR1. Stars drift slowly from left-to-right with time, caused by the spacecraft orbiting around the Sun. Twice a year the Milky Way will drift through the field-of-view, as in this example from the HI1 on STEREO Ahead.

Milky Way as seen by STEREO Ahead HI1
The Milky Way passing through the field-of-view of the STEREO Ahead HI1 telescope on October 12, 2009. Click on any image for a higher resolution version.

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – COSMIC RAYS

Cosmic rays and solar energetic particles are highly energetic particles that travel through space. Some of these originate from the Sun. Others, known as galactic cosmic rays, come from outside the solar system. When they pass through the detectors, they produce thin bright spots or streaks.

cosmic ray
Close up of cosmic ray track seen on the STEREO Behind COR2 detector.

The high compression factors used for the temporary beacon images can cause cosmic ray events to be significantly distorted, as shown in the sample images below. Even the full resolution data have some compression applied to them, resulting in a small amount of distortion of the brightest cosmic rays.

 

Cosmic rays seen in beacon data Cosmic rays seen in full resolution data
Two cosmic rays distorted by the high compression factors applied to beacon data, as seen by the STEREO Behind EUVI telescope on January 18, 2010 Same cosmic rays as seen in the full resolution data. Many more cosmic ray events are visible. Only the brightest two show up in the beacon image.

 

On July 19, 2011, the software for generating the browse images was changed to not apply smoothing when making JPEG images that are larger in size than the original data. The smoothing, as seen in the left image above, was found to contribute to making the cosmic ray features look like artificial structures. The unsmoothed images, although not quite as pleasing looking, are more representative of the actual data.

 

 

Often, planets can also be seen passing through the telescope fields-of-view. The STEREO Planet Finder page shows what planets are currently visible in the STEREO telescopes, while the STEREO Orbit Tool shows the positions of the planets in the solar system for any given date during the mission. Most planets are too bright for the sensitive optics in the STEREO coronagraphs, causing them to appear overly large and distorted. Note the “butterfly” shape of Venus in the COR2 image below, caused by diffraction off the occulter stem. In the HI1 and HI2 images, planet images and particularly bright stars will also be accompanied by vertical streaks (either white or black), which is due to the shutterless readout of the cameras on these telescopes. Most planets will move from left to right, but the inner planets Mercury and Venus often are seen moving from right to left.

 

Venus and Mercury as seen by STEREO Behind COR2 Jupiter as seen by STEREO Ahead HI1
The planets Venus (left) and Mercury (right) as seen by the STEREO Behind COR2 telescope on October 13, 2009 Jupiter as seen by the STEREO Ahead HI1 telescope on September 1, 2008

 

Occasionally, even bright comets can cause vertical streaks in the data. Here is an image of Comet McNaught as it appears in HI1-B on the SSC website. Note the large dark vertical dark streak, and the smeared brightness toward the bottom of the image, both effects caused by the high brightness of this particular comet. Advanced techniques exist for removing some of these effects from the images, but these are not applied routinely on the SSC website. Better images of Comet McNaught are available on the STEREO Gallery. Additional information about comets seen by STEREO can be found on the Sungrazer website.

Comet McNaught as seen by STEREO Behind COR2
Comet McNaught as seen by the STEREO Behind COR2 telescope on January 12, 2007

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – TELESCOPE AND CAMERA DEFECTS

Some artifacts are caused by defects in the cameras or optics used to take the images. The most noticeable example of a camera defect is shown below. This is a small fiber on the surface of the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera for the COR2 telescope on STEREO Ahead. The total length of the fiber is just 1 millimeter. It has been there since launch. Most likely this fiber came off of one of the clean room wipes used during the assembly of the camera. Even though the material of the wipes is selected to shed as few particles as possible, the occasional particle does end up inside the instrument.

Fiber on the COR2 detector on STEREO Ahead
Close up image of a small fiber on the surface of the CCD camera for COR2 on STEREO Ahead. Click on the image to see the location on the detector.

The position of this fiber on the detector is fixed, and always shows up in the same position in the raw images. However, the processed images on the website include a correction for the spacecraft roll angle so that solar north always points straight up. This causes the position of the fiber to change slightly over the course of the year, or whenever there’s a spacecraft roll maneuver.

There are also several much smaller dust particles on the surface of the various detectors. The image below shows a typical dust particle on the EUVI detector on STEREO Behind, in this case just above the Sun’s north pole.

Dust particle the EUVI detector on STEREO Behind
Small dust particle on the surface of the EUVI detector on STEREO Behind.

 

Light leaks inside the EUVI telescope optics can also affect the images. EUVI uses thin metal films to filter out direct sunlight and pass through only the wavelengths of interest. Small holes can develop in these filters, letting stray light through the system. To get around this problem, two sets of filters are used, one at the front of the telescope, and another at the back, to reduce the effect of light leaks. However, some faint leaks are still visible in the images, as shown below for the 284 Angstrom bandpass on STEREO Behind.

 

Light leaks in EUVI 284 Angstrom images on STEREO Behind
Streaks caused by light leaks in the thin film filters for the 284 Angstrom bandpass of EUVI on STEREO Behind. The contrast in the image have been stretched to bring out the faint streaks.

 

See also the discussion about the COR1 field lens artifacts in the background subtraction section.

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – SPACECRAFT ROLLS

Periodically, the STEREO spacecraft are rolled around the Sun-pointed axis for calibration purposes. The result can be some very odd coronagraph images as shown below. This is because the processing algorithms don’t work properly during the roll. The EUVI images are relatively unaffected, except the position of Sun center moves around.

Roll effect on STEREO Ahead COR1 Roll effect on STEREO Ahead COR2
The effect of observing during a spacecraft roll, as seen by STEREO Ahead COR1 on November 24, 2009. Click on the images to see movies of the event.  

 

 

Same event as seen in COR2
Roll effect on STEREO Ahead HI1 Roll effect on STEREO Ahead HI2
Same event as seen in HI1 Same event as seen in HI2

 

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – CORRUPTED IMAGES

On rare occasions, the SECCHI image processor onboard STEREO becomes overloaded, and produces corrupted images. Generally, these take the form of images from one telescope processed as if they were from another telescope. Because the images from the Heliospheric Imager (HI) telescopes are built up from a large number of exposures added together, this sometimes results in “double exposures”, where data from several telescopes appear in the same image. Instances of large numbers of corrupted images are usually tracked on the STEREO Coordinated Observations Calendar pages.

Below are some examples of corrupted images.

Corrupted COR1 image Corrupted HI1 image
Corrupted COR1 image incorporating data from the HI2 telescope. Corrupted HI1 image incorporating data from both the COR1 and EUVI telescopes.

IMAGE ARTIFACTS – BLANK IMAGES

Another error which occasionally happens on board the spacecraft is to take an image without opening the shutter. This generally results in a completely blank image. Some coronagraph images built up from several exposures may show features in the corners of the image, as in this example.

COR1 image involving blank exposures
COR1-B image taken May 29, 2009, formed from two blank exposures, and one partial exposure with the shutter left open during readout.

 

Since one of the major goals of the STEREO program is Space Weather predictions, it will be necessary for the SWAVES team to process the data very quickly. Our experience with the Wind/WAVES data processing has shown that within a few hours of receipt of the data (and sometimes within a few minutes), we can issue a Space Weather prediction of the arrival time of a CME-driven shock at Earth. Assuming STEREO data is available to investigators within 24 hours of receipt, this prediction is then 2-3 days in advance of impact. With SWAVES, the predictions will be more sophisticated but we expect to be able to issue them very quickly, within hours of our receipt of level zero data.

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